Our Iowa Heritage: Iowa, Slavery, & The Underground Railroad.

In the years leading up to the Civil War, the people of the United States were deeply divided over the issue of slavery. Many believed that it was no longer appropriate for a nation that believed these powerful words from our Declaration of Independence…

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness…

…could continue with a system of government that not only allowed, but actually encouraged ownership of other human beings.

A divided United States at the time of the Civil War (1861).

Without a doubt, this national argument over slavery played a huge part in Our Iowa Heritage.

Iowa – The 29th State – The 29-Star Flag. When Iowa joined the Union (1846) as the 29th state, the U.S. flag transitioned to look like this! The flag shown here is the one displayed in the House Chamber of Old Capitol today.

Did you know, for example, in 1846, when Iowa became the 29th state in the Union, legislators in Washington DC who wanted slavery to continue insisted that if Iowa was to be admitted as the 29th state, which certainly would become a “free state” based on our state’s constitution, then a “slave state” must be brought in as well. That’s why Florida entered the Union around the same time as Iowa, keeping the balance of power equal in the U.S. Senate.

Free States vs. Slave States.

Allow me here to give you a bit of the history of “slave states” vs. “free states.”

Prior to the Civil War (1861-1865), a slave state was one in which slavery and the slave trade were legal, while a free state was one in which they were not.

While slavery was legal throughout the Thirteen Colonies in 1776, it was still a very divisive issue among those who gathered in Philadelphia to write the Declaration of Independence. Knowing the subject would divide the colonies versus uniting them, the founders decided to fore-go their differences. But by 1787, when the U.S. Constitution was written, slavery had become the elephant in the room. Pennsylvania had abolished slavery in 1780, and another four did the same soon after.

Between 1812 and 1850, it was considered by the slave states to be politically imperative that the number of free states not exceed the number of slave states, so new states were admitted in slave–free pairs.

Slave statesYearFree statesYear

But with the addition of four free-states, California (1850), Minnesota (1858), Oregon (1859), and Kansas (1861), the political balance shifted in favor of the abolitionists, with 19 free states and 15 slave states. During the war, slavery was abolished in some of these jurisdictions, and the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in December of 1865, finally abolished slavery throughout the United States.

As you can see from the map (above) Iowa, because of its strategic location just north of the slave-state of Missouri, and just west of the free-state of Illinois, became a prominent location for The Underground Railroad.

Beginning in 1830, The Underground Road became an organized system for helping escaped slaves from the southern states reach freedom in the North. Since steam engines were the newest and most modern means of travel, the name soon transitioned into The Underground Railroad, with those who kept “safe houses” for freedom-seekers becoming “station agents,” those who guided slaves from one point to another ”conductors,” while the men, women, and children who were escaping were “passengers.”

(C-0145) 1846 – 1946  Celebrating Iowa Statehood and the Underground Railroad.

A number of Iowa’s earliest settlers, often motivated by religious convictions and a marked appreciation of the principles of individual rights and personal liberty, provided shelter, transport, and material support for the travelers on this trail to freedom. See the full list of Iowans involved with the Underground Railroad here.

Click here to read about Judge Charles Mason, Iowa’s first Supreme Court Chief Justice, who ruled in favor of the abolitionist movement in 1839.

The Henderson Lewelling House in Salem, Iowa (Henry County) There are five underground railroad stops in Iowa that have been preserved (Lewelling House in Salem, Pearson House in Keosauqua, Jordan House in West Des Moines, Hitchcock House in Lewis, and the John Todd House in Tabor). Favorite hiding places seem to have been in the attics of houses, or in outbuildings like the haylofts of barns. Sometimes freedom seekers were hidden outside in the woods along creeks or rivers, or even in tall prairie grass.

West Branch, home of President Herbert Hoover, was another of those anti-slavery communities (Quaker) involved with the work of the Underground Railroad. Read more about West Branch and her famous son here.

West Branch, Iowa – Home of Herbert Hoover.

Samuel J. Kirkwood was probably one the better known abolitionists throughout the state. Iowa’s Civil War governer, Kirkwood was nominated in 1859 and defeated Augustus C. Dodge after a bitter campaign which focused on the slavery issue. In 1860, Kirkwood’s first year in office, the John Brown raid on Harpers Ferry (1859) further polarized the nation over slavery, and Kirkwood was clearly on the side of the militant abolitionists. When Barclay Coppock, a youth from Springdale, who was part of Brown’s raid, fled to Iowa, Kirkwood refused to accept extradition papers for him from Virginia, and allowed Coppock to escape. Click here to read more about the John Brown Trail that ran through West Branch and the Iowa City artist & photographer, Isaac Wetherby, who participated with the anti-slavery movement.

During the Civil War, Kirkwood gained national attention for his extraordinary efforts to secure soldiers and supplies from Iowa for the Union Army. A strong supporter of President Abraham Lincoln’s policies during the American Civil War, he was active in raising and equipping dozens of regiments of infantry, as well as cavalry and artillery, for the Union Army. In 1862, he attended the Loyal War Governors’ Conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania, which ultimately gave Lincoln support for his Emancipation Proclamation.

1909 – A souvenir postcard of the Centennial Anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s birthday. The postcard text reads, “Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, issued January 1st 1863. Four millions of slaves were liberated from bondage that had existed from the beginning of the National life. Henceforth a Government without a Master and without a Slave.” Lincoln is depicted in the postcard standing with his right arm raised over a black women slave and her children, while holding the emancipation proclamation rolled in his left hand.
(C-0255) In 1963 the USPS issued this commemorative stamp celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.
April 1865 – Memorial Service for President Abraham Lincoln, photographed by Isaac A. Wetherby.
April 9, 1968 – Memorial Service for Martin Luther King, Jr., photographed by Fred Kent.

Click here to read more about these two iconic moments of mourning…

Kudos to the amazing resources below for the many quotes, photographs, etc. used on this page.

The Underground Railroad in Iowa, www.arcgis.com

Iowa Freedom Trail Project: Individuals by County, State Historic Preservation Office of Iowa

Slave States vs. Free States, Wikipedia

Iowa Territorial Supreme Court Case of “Ralph,” Pieces of Iowa’s Past, February 26, 2020, Legislative Services Agency

Samuel J. Kirkwood, Wikipedia

1908 Lincoln Anniversary postcard, OhioMemory.org

Memorial Service for Martin Luther King, Jr. photo, Fred Kent, Facing East and Facing West – Iowa’s Old Capitol Museum, Linzie Kull McCray & Thomas Langdon (2007) University of Iowa Press, p 12

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